THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EC SUPPLY CHAINS. EC supply chains need to deliver small quantities to a very large number of customers. Also, it is very dif cult to forecast demand due to lack of experience and to the fact that many vendors sell some or mostly customized products. New dot-com companies do not have any existing supply chain operations; they are starting from scratch. (Click-and-mortar companies, in contrast, have existing supply chains and so have a bit of a head start.) When a company sells online direct to customers it must take care of the following activities: quickly nd the products to be shipped, and pack them; arrange for the packages to be delivered quickly to the customer s door; collect the money from every customer, either in advance, COD (collect on delivery), or by billing the individual; and handle the return of unwanted or defective products. It may be dif cult to ful ll these activities both effectively and ef ciently. For this reason, both online companies and click-and-mortar companies have dif culties in their online-related supply chains. Let s begin by looking at order ful llment. ORDER FULFILLMENT. Order ful llment refers not only to providing what customers ordered and doing it on time, but also to providing all related customer service. For example, the customer must receive assembly and operating instructions for the appliance he or she just purchased. This can be done by including a paper document with the product or by providing the instructions on the Web. (A nice example is available at In addition, if the customer is not happy with a product, an exchange or return must be arranged. Thus, while order ful llment is basically a part of the back-of ce operations, it is strongly related to front-of ce operations as well. When dot-com operations were still quite new, e-tailers faced continuous problems with order ful llment, especially during the holiday season. The problems included inability to deliver on time, delivering wrong items, paying too much for deliveries, and heavily compensating unhappy customers. Taking orders over the Internet for some e-tailers proved to be the easy part of B2C e-commerce. Ful llment to customers doors was the harder part. The e-tailers who have survived have proved that they have learned from past mistakes and are learning how to solve their order ful llment problems. As a matter of fact, many e-tailers have experienced ful llment problems since they started EC., for example, which initially operated as a totally online company, added physical warehouses in order to expedite deliveries and reduce its order ful llment costs. Woolworths of Australia, a large supermarket that added online services, had serious dif culties with order ful llment and delivery of fresh foods, and had to completely restructure its delivery system. Several factors can be responsible for delays in deliveries. They range from inability to accurately forecast demand, to ineffective supply chains of the e-tailers. Similar problems exist also in off-line businesses. However, one EC is more typically based on the concept of pull operations, which begin with an order, frequently a customized one. (This is in contrast with traditional retailing that begins with a production to inventory, which is then pushed to customers.) In the pull case, it is more dif cult to forecast demand, due to unique demands of customized orders and lack of suf cient years of experience (see Appendix 3.1). Another order ful llment problem in e-commerce is that the goods need be delivered to the customer s door, with small quantities to each customer, whereas in brick-and-mortar retailing, the customers come to the stores to get
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In This Part
Assembly Code
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Choosing and Installing a Linux Distribution
For the computation of the mass flow of sulfur dioxide between the gaseous phase and the film, the averaged value of loading of SO2 over the height is needed, thus YSO2 =
# ping PING ( from 56(84)bytes of data 64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=62 time=1252 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=62 time=1218 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=62 time=1290 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 ttl=62 time=1288 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=5 ttl=62 time=1241 ms --- ping statistics --5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% loss, time 5032ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1218.059/1258.384/1290.861/28.000 ms
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of a colleague can also be problematic. Behavioral inf luence is difficult, but not impossible. Problem Example: Colleague s Behavior Is Maddening. One of my colleagues drives me crazy because he is always stuck on the tiniest details and never sees the bigger picture. Even when I don t need his cooperation, his general attitude is maddening. I put a lot of energy into conceptualizing better ways for us to deliver service to our customers, and it s like he is speaking some other language; he never responds with enthusiasm to any new idea. All he can say is, How many man-hours will that mean I have to schedule next year or something like that. Sometimes I feel like Moses coming down from the mountain, and all he wants to know is why I didn t use a number 6 chisel! Answer. Maybe the world would be more pleasant if everyone were just like you, but the loss in diverse skills and perspectives would not be good for productivity. If you are a creative conceptualizer, that is extremely valuable, but your ideas are likely to be strengthened or executed better if there is someone like your colleague buttoning down the details, making sure the ideas are practical. (In turn, your soaring imagination is probably a necessary antidote to your earthbound colleague.) Thus, the starting point for inf luencing this colleague (and most colleagues) is to look at your own expectations and behavior to see whether there is anything in what you do that is the source of the problem or a contributor to it. In this case, your impatience is as much about you as it is about him. You need to think about your own appreciation of skills complementary to yours and find a way to value them. An understanding of your own limits and the value of people with differing approaches will go a long way. In addition, look closely at whether your impatience and scorn for the detail orientation of your colleague is prompting him to be even more finicky. Sure, he is naturally detail conscious, but you may be so extreme in your insistence on staying in the clouds that you tempt him into even greater delight in sticking to the concrete. And that stimulates you to be even more soaring, which goads him, and on and on. (This reciprocal role relationship is depicted in its most general form in Figure 12.1 on page 230 and explained in more detail in the section in 9 on Feedback as exchange. See also 6, Building Effective Relationships, for more on dealing with colleagues.)
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