They derive the convertible value V(S, t) as a solution of a partial differential equation where the equity component is discounted at the constant risk-free rate r while the bond component is discounted at a risky rate the risk-free rate plus a credit spread, r + s, due to credit and interest rate risk: V V 1 2 2 2V + (r q)S r (V B) (r + s)B 0 + S 2 S t 2 S which can be reduced to V V 1 2 2 2V + (r q)S rV sB 0 + S 2 S t 2 S subject to the constraints V max(Bp, NS) V max(Bc, NS) and boundary conditions V(S, T) = Z (3.75) V(0, t) = Ze r(T-t) where Z is the face value of the bond, B is the bond price, Bp is the putable bond price, and Bc is the callable bond price. To incorporate default risk into the model, one can set the spread s = p(1 R) where R is the recovery rate on the bond upon default and p is the hazard rate (probability of default). If coupon payments, C(S, t), on the bond are included as well as discrete dividend payments, D(S, t), we can modify (3.73) by V V 1 2 2 2V + (rS D(S, t )) rV sB + C (S, t ) 0 + S 2 S t 2 S (3.76) (3.73) (3.72)
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OMJ: Orthomode junction Pol: Polarizer OMT: Orthomode transducer DIP: Diplexer display barcode font
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In the preceding statements, the variable x is assigned to the lambda form. When you invoke x with the arguments 5 and 6, the corresponding lambda form is invoked. The values are passed to a and b, the product of a and b is calculated, and the output is displayed.
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The variety of 64 kbit/s bearer services is required because of the need for special interworking treatment of speech or data carried on 3.1 kHz telephone type circuits using modems. The ISDN, together with terminal functions, provides a range of teleservices. Several are standardized to allow public interoperability. Those included in the Blue Book Recommendations are: telephony; teletex; telefax (group 4 fax); mixed mode; videotex; telex. All bearer service and teleservice specifications are limited to essential features but can be complemented by a series of supplementary services. Definitions have been produced for supplementary services in the following categories: Number identification Call offering Call completion Multiparty Community of interest Charging Added information.
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If you want to check to see what a variable is set to, simply enter the echo command followed by a dollar sign and the name of the variable, as such:
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Recent advancements in AESs have allowed their increased use and integration into the EPS. When interconnected with the EPS at or near load centers, these
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The Object Model Concept
According to JWSDP 1.0, JAX-RPC-based services are specified with only servlet-based service endpoints and the JAX-RPC services are required to be deployed as a servlet in a Java servlet 2.2-based container. This mandates that the JAX-RPC-based services be packaged as a Web application (WAR). To package a JAX-RPC service as a Web application, we need to create a WAR file that includes the following classes and other configuration files:
All medium bit rate TDMA systems use a combination of FDMA and TDMA access schemes. In these systems, the transmission band is divided into carriers (not necessary of identical rates), which are accessed in TDMA mode. The connectivity between all stations is usually guaranteed by a mechanism of frequency hopping (at transmit or at receive side, or both). In the simplest case, each traffic terminal transmits on a single carrier but can receive traffic coming from any other carrier by modifying its receive frequency in real time (burst per burst). Traffic control software ensures that incoming bursts carrying traffic for the same station in different carriers never overlap in time (see Figure 7.56).
in the electricity sector. Spain has leapt from using virtually no renewables a few years ago to become the second-biggest wind power country in Europe, with 6000 MW of capacity. Countries such as Finland, Sweden, and Austria have supported the development of very successful biomass power and heating industries through scal policies, sustained R&D support, and synergistic forestry and industrial policies. In addition to saving signi cant carbon dioxide emissions, equipment from all three countries is exported worldwide. Table 1.5 presents some technical and economical characteristics of selected renewable energy technologies, and Table 1.6 presents the EU-25 electricity production mix of 2002. Going further, in 1991, the European Union and the United States launched ExternE, a joint project to assess the economic costs of externalities from the production and use of energy, and estimated that these costs amount to 1 to 2% of the EU s gross domestic product [8]. In July 2001, the European Commission issued a
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For the more realistic case of asynchronous measurements, time stamps are referred to the acquisition time of the respective sensory data. Therefore, in a fully asynchronous dynamic fusion context [34], the tracker should perform different state predictions for each camera, and perform separate state updates as well.
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