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Why are these models performing so poorly The answer is that we have not applied misclassi cation costs. To develop candidate models that we will evaluate using a strictly de ned cost bene t matrix, we should seek to embed these costs within the models themselves. In Clementine 8.5, two classi cation algorithms are equipped with explicit mechanisms for de ning asymmetric misclassi cation costs: C5.0 and CART. Therefore, our next step is to develop decision tree models using misclassi cation costs in C5.0 and CART. We proceed to de ne the cost of making a false negative decision to be 28.4 and the cost of making a false positive decision to be 2.0; there is no mechanism for de ning the bene t of a true positive to be 26.4, so it is left as 1.0. It should be noted that using these values to de ne the misclassi cation costs is equivalent to setting the false negative cost to 14.2 and the false positive cost to 1.0. Unfortunately, the application of these costs resulted in both the CART model and the C5.0 model classifying all customers as responders (not shown) (i.e., similar to the send to everyone model). Evidently, the combination of 50% balancing with these strong misclassi cation costs made it too expensive for either model to predict negatively. Therefore, the misclassi cation costs were reduced from the 14.2 1.0 ratio down to a 10.0 1.0 ratio, with the false negative cost equal to 10 and the false positive cost equal to 1. Again, this is equivalent to a false negative cost of 20 and a false positive cost of 2. The resulting performance measures are provided in Table 7.12. Suddenly, with the application of misclassi cation costs at the model-building stage, the overall pro t per customer has jumped by more than a dollar. Both the CART model and the C5.0 model have now outperformed the baseline send to everyone model. Let s take a closer look at these models. Figure 7.29 shows the results from the C5.0 model in Table 7.12. Note the highlighted node. For the 447 records in this node, only 20.8% of them are responders. Yet, as indicated by the 1 to the right of the arrow, the model is predicting that the customers in this node are responders. Why is this happening Because the high false negative misclassi cation cost makes the model very wary of making negative predictions. This phenomenon helps to illustrate why the C5.0 model with 14.2 1 misclassi cation costs returned not a single negative prediction. Also note from Figure 7.29 the dominant role played by the rst principal component, purchasing habits (Table 7.6), denoted as $F-PCA-1 in the decision tree.
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is associated with emotional disturbance (Brewer & Petrie, 1995; Chan & Grossman, 1988; Johnson, 1997a, 1998; Leddy et al., 1994; Mainwaring et al., 2004; Pearson & Jones, 1992; Smith et al., 1993). Similarly, there is evidence that the emotional disturbance of athletes is greater following injury than it is prior to injury (Leddy et al., 1994; Mainwaring et al., 2004; Smith et al., 1993). As noted by Heil (1993), the majority of psychological distress experienced by individuals with sport injuries is not of sufficient magnitude and duration to approach clinical levels. Nevertheless, epidemiological findings indicate that clinically meaningful levels of emotional disturbance are experienced by 5% to 27% of athletes with injuries (Brewer, Linder, & Phelps, 1995; Brewer, Petitpas, Van Raalte, Sklar, & Ditmar, 1995; Brewer & Petrie, 1995; Leddy et al., 1994; Manuel et al., 2002). In cases where the postinjury distress (especially depression) is severe, some athletes with injuries may even attempt suicide (Smith & Milliner, 1994). Although there is evidence suggesting that a large portion of athletes experience most of the emotional responses to injury posited to occur by stage models of adjustment (e.g., Astle, 1986; Lynch, 1988; Rotella, 1985) at some point during rehabilitation, results of retrospective, crosssectional, and longitudinal investigations indicate that emotional reactions to injury are more varied and less sequential than those hypothesized by stage models. In particular, the available research data suggest that positive emotions generally increase and negative emotions generally decrease over the course of rehabilitation (Crossman, Gluck, & Jamieson, 1995; Dawes & Roach, 1997; Leddy et al., 1994; Macchi & Crossman, 1996; Mainwaring et al., 2004; Manuel et al., 2002; McDonald & Hardy, 1990; Quackenbush & Crossman, 1994; Quinn & Fallon, 1999; Smith, Scott, O Fallon, et al., 1990). An exception to these trends is that positive emotions have been found to decrease slightly and negative emotions have been found to increase slightly as individuals near the end of rehabilitation following reconstructive knee surgery (Morrey, Stuart, Smith, & Wiese-Bjornstal, 1999), perhaps reflecting apprehension about their return to sport activity. In addition to analyzing temporal effects, researchers have accounted for some of the variability in emotional responses to sport injury by identifying personal, situational, and cognitive factors associated with athletes postinjury status. In the integrated model of response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process (Wiese-Bjornstal et al., 1998), the influence of personal and situational factors is thought to be mediated by cognitive appraisals. Most
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58 minutes at the product center; in large formats (150 mm diameter), 68 to 70 C for 314 to 360 minutes are necessary for a fully processed material (Totosaus and P rezChabela 2005). Figure 19.2 depicts the general process to obtain liver p t . In addition to ensuring product microbial safety, heating develops sensory characteristics such as avor and texture; the emulsion turns into a gel, stabilizing the product, although the high fat content also contributes to the desirable spreadability characteristic of this meat product. In the case of p t foie gras, the high fat content (44%, Table 19.1) makes this product melt too easily, so it is served chilled; liver p t s can be served warm or hot. Chefs recommend that canned p t age for three months before opening, to develop avor. Physicochemical Characteristics Since p t is a semisolid food that is expected to be consumed as a spread, texture in general
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psychodynamic, behavioral) was superior to other orientations regardless of the clinical problem of interest. People who used community interventions such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) were found to be especially satisfied with these experiences. The Consumer Reports survey concluded that while psychotherapy does appear to work and people are generally highly satisfied with their psychotherapy experience, low or no cost selfhelp community interventions are equally helpful. An extensive review of all the research studies generally concludes that psychotherapy does indeed work (Barlow, 1996; Hollon, 1996; Ingram et al., 2003; M. Lambert et al., 2003; Messer & Wampold, 2002; Shadish et al., 2002; VandenBos, 1996). Numerous research and clinical examples provide convincing evidence that psychotherapy is effective (Beutler, Bongar, & Shurkin, 1998; Nathan & Gorman, 2002). However, both researchers and clinicians have been trying to answer many additional follow-up questions that go well beyond whether psychotherapy works or not, such as: How does psychotherapy work and what types of treatment and therapists are effective for what types of problems and patients Recent efforts by the American Psychological Association (APA) have attempted to identify specific treatment approaches for specific problem areas (Addis, 2002; D. Chambless et al., 1996; D. Chambless & Ollendick, 2001; Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995). These empirically supported treatments have received a great deal of recent attention and support but remain controversial. While many feel that specific treatments can be targeted for specific problems, others feel that psychotherapy is too unique and complicated to routinely fit human beings into standardized treatment protocols (Garfield, 1996; Havik & VandenBos, 1996; Norcross, 2002).
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The folio, transfers, and paid-out slips are documents that allow for the documentation and transfer of charges and payments to a guest s account (Figure 8-2). In a property management system, the electronic folio is stored in the computer memory until a hard copy is required. The hard copy of the electronic folio is a standard folio that lists the date of transaction, item, transfer slip number for referral, debit or credit amount, and updated balance. The transfer slip allows the desk clerk to transfer an amount of money from one account to another while creating a paper trail. A paid-out slip (a prenumbered form that authorizes cash disbursement from the front desk clerk s bank for products on behalf of a guest or an employee of the hotel) documents the authorized payment of cash to a vendor or an employee for a quick purchase of materials for the hotel. In a hotel with a PMS that interfaces with the various point-of-sale departments, the transfer of charges incurred by the guest or the transfer of a portion of one guest s bill to another guest s folio is done automatically. The front desk clerk uses these forms in posting charges and payments, which is the process of debiting and crediting charges and payments to a guest folio. The night auditor can then track the procedures that the front desk clerk used in posting. These forms assist in maintaining control of bookkeeping activities in the front of ce.
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Figure 15.1 A mobile ad hoc network.
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Part III More Complex Interfacing
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Choose the desired data-rate setting, following these guidelines: a. Auto means the router automatically determines the best data rate to use. b. Changing the data rate to a very low value, such as 1 Mbps, makes your wireless signal travel farther. c. Choosing a high xed data rate, such as 54 Mbps, limits the range of your network but makes it safer from high-tech criminals. Be advised that this high setting could make it dif cult for computers to use your network if they are located too far away from your router.
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Access Path The method by which a table is accessed as part of an overall query processing. Bit Vector Filter A bit-oriented encryption of the join columns to reduce the communication cost between the sites involved in a distributed query. Bloom Vector A bit-oriented encryption of the join columns proposed by Bloom to reduce the communication cost between the sites involved in a distributed query. Catalog A set of system-de ned tables that maintain information about structures de ned within one or more databases. Catalog is another term for data dictionary. Centralized Database Environment (CDBE) A database environment in which one computer (server) carries out the users commands. Clustered Index An index in which the table rows that are addressed by sorted key values are clustered (adjacent) to each other. Conditional Join A join that requires a condition that two or more columns of the two tables being joined will have to satisfy. Cost-Based Optimization (CBO) An optimization approach in which the cost method is used to nd the query plan with the smallest cost out of the possible query plans for the query. Data Dictionary A collection of system tables that hold information about the structures of a database. Data dictionary is also known as the meta-data for the databases in a DBMS. Data Shipping An execution strategy in which data is shipped to another computer to be used in the operation. Disk I/O The process of reading or writing from/to the hard disk. Distributed Database Environment (DDBE) A collection of one or more DBs along with any software providing at least the minimum set of required data operations and management facilities capable of supporting distributed data. Dynamic Programming A phased approach to query optimization which eliminates suboptimal plans until the optimal plan is arrived at. Equi-join A conditional join that forces equality across two columns of the two tables being joined. Global Query A query whose target tables are distributed across multiple computers or database environments. Greedy Algorithm An optimization approach that limits the amount of disk storage and memory used by dynamic programming by only forming 2-relation plans at each step of the process. Hash-Join A speci c join strategy that uses a hash function to partition the rows of the two tables being joined and then only joins rows in corresponding partitions.
Roles and Responsibilities
. For large-scale real-time event noti cation and publisher subscriber communication, try Talarian and Tibco http:// . For general-purpose multicast in conjunction with Cisco router assistance, try PGM  luigi/pgm.html. . For use with a small group and a single source, try SCE (single connection emulation), which emulates one multicast session using multiple unicast TCP sessions, playground/SCE/. . For use with a small group and a single source, try RAMP (reliable adaptive multicast protocol), initially described in RFC 1458, http://www.tascnets. com/tbone/ramp.html (or q cache:www. RAMP multicast protocol&hl en). . For use within a local area network and with multiple sources, try SRM (scalable reliable multicast), http://www-mash.CS.Berkeley.EDU/mash/software/ srm2.0/. 4.4 APPLICATION LAYER MULTICAST
Double-click the Network Neighborhood icon on your desktop to open the Network Neighborhood window (see Figure 7-14).
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