in productive ways prior to competition (Bloom, DurandBush, & Salmela, 1997). Self-confidence is the belief that one has the internal resources, particularly abilities, to achieve success. International-level elite athletes identified resilient and robust self-confidence, or the unshakable belief in one s ability to achieve, as the most critical mental skill defining mental toughness (Bull et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2002; Thelwell et al., 2005). Self-confidence consistently appears as a key skill possessed by successful elite athletes (DeFrancesco & Burke, 1997; Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2002; Gould, Dieffenbach, et al., 2002; Gould, Greenleaf, Chung, & Guinan, 2002; Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2002), and fluctuations in confidence account for differences in best and worst performances (Eklund, 1994, 1996; Gould et al., 1992a, 1992b; Greenleaf et al., 2001). Elite field hockey players identified the development and maintenance of self-confidence as one of their biggest needs in terms of mental training (Grove & Hanrahan, 1988). Performance Skills Performance skills are mental abilities critical to the execution of skills during sport performance. Perceptual-cognitive skill refers to the cognitive knowledge structure that enables optimal strategic processing of task-relevant information. Although perceptual-cognitive expertise is discussed extensively in 11, it is included in this chapter as a critical performance skill that must be included in the mental skills model shown in Figure 13.1. Highly skilled athletes demonstrate expertise in tactical/strategic knowledge and perceptual and decision-making skill in sport, including superior recall and recognition of patterns of play, faster detection and recognition, more efficient and appropriate visual search behaviors, and better anticipation of likely events in their specific sports (McPherson & Kernodle, 2002; Tenenbaum, 2002; Tenenbaum & Bar-Eli, 1993; A. M. Williams & Ward, 2003). Also, the ability to generate and use vivid and controllable mental images of performance responses is associated with better sport performance (K. A. Martin, Moritz, & Hall, 1999). Attentional focus is the ability to selectively direct and sustain a focus of attention required for the successful execution of a specific activity. The ability to direct and sustain a nondistractible focus of attention is widely observed in and cited by athletes as a mental skill critical to performance (DeFrancesco & Burke, 1997; Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2002; Gould, Dieffenbach, et al., 2002; Gould, Eklund, & Jackson, 1993; Greenleaf et al., 2001; Jones et al., 2002; Kitsantas & Zimmerman, 2002; Orlick & Part-
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tigations to evaluate treatment outcome. In fact, Freud felt that controlled research using statistical analysis was not a reasonable method for determining the effects of treatment (Freud, 1917/1963, 1933/1964). Freud and others felt that because psychotherapy was such a highly individualized experience, group findings based on averages and statistics were useless. Only since the 1950s have psychologists endorsed the notion that systematically studying psychotherapy outcome is a worthy endeavor. After controlled investigations of psychotherapy outcome were conducted, thousands of studies followed. Psychotherapy treatment outcome has become one of the most common topics of investigation in all psychology research. In a classic and frequently cited research project, Hans Eysenck (1952) examined 24 research studies concerning both psychodynamic and eclectic techniques used for nonpsychotic patients. The results of his study failed to demonstrate that psychotherapy was effective. Furthermore, Eysenck suggested that spontaneous recovery (i.e., recovery from symptoms without any treatment intervention) from neurotic types of problems (e.g., anxiety and depression) could be expected about 72% of the time. Therefore he estimated that 72% of those experiencing psychological distress would improve without treatment. However, many critics of Eysenck s research methods have seriously questioned his conclusions (e.g., Bergin, 1971; Sanford, 1953; Strupp, 1963). For example, Bergin (1971) reexamined Eysenck s data and estimated that the rate of spontaneous recovery was about 30% rather than 72% and that the recovery rate from psychotherapy was much higher than that estimated by Eysenck. In a much more rigorous and ambitious research project, M. Smith and Glass (1977) examined 375 research studies on psychotherapy treatment outcome by using meta-analysis and effect-size techniques. Results from the
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This is also a good time to check your own HTML. If the following markup doesn t match your own, you ll want to review your own and see what you missed. Of course, the content won t match.
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the model, but this is not strictly speaking a requirement. For example, consider the entity relationship modeling technique described by Dr. Chen, the relational model as formalized by Dr. Codd, and the ANSI standard, or each proprietary Structured Query Language (SQL) de ned by a particular RDBMS implementation. Navigation The mechanism used in the object-oriented data model (OODM) to nd an object instance by following a chain of pointers or references (properties) from one object to another. Network Data Model (NDM) A logical modeling language (LML) commonly used in mainframe DBEs. It was de ned by the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL) committee and later standardized by ANSI s Network Data Language (NDL) and captures concepts using records, data items, record types, and set types. Normalization A set of rules de ned by E. F. Codd and others to transform logical data models (LDMs) written in the relational data model (RDM) language in order to prevent some undesirable situations with regard to functional dependencies. Object An instance of a class in the object-oriented data model (OODM) this is analogous to a tuple in the relational data model (RDM) or a record in the network data model (NDM) or hierarchical data model (HDM). Object-Oriented Data Model (OODM) A logical modeling language (LML) commonly used in object-oriented DBEs. Although there is no single standard, there are several attempts at standardization such as those performed by the Object Database Management Group (OODMG) and the Object Management Group (OMG). It captures concepts using properties, methods, classes, class inheritance, objects, object identi ers, navigation, and extents. Parent Record Type The record type connected to the one side of a parent child record type (LT) in the hierarchical data model (HDM). Parent Child Record Type See Link Type. Primary Key (PK) A subset of the domains (columns) de ned within a relation (table) that uniquely identi es all the instances (rows) within the relational data model (RDM). Property A term used in the object-oriented data model (OODM) to refer to a construct that is analogous to an attribute type (AT) in the relational data model (RDM). Record An instance of a record type in the network data model (NDM) or hierarchical data model (HDM) this is analogous to a tuple in the relational data model (RDM) or an object in the object-oriented data model (OODM). Record Type An abstraction of a record in the network data model (NDM) or hierarchical data model (HDM) in the same way that a relational schema is an abstraction for a tuple in the relational data model (RDM) and a class is an abstraction of an object in the object-oriented data model (OODM). Relation A construct that contains all the tuples for a particular relational schema in the relational data model (RDM) this is somewhat analogous to the system-owned set type used in the network data model (NDM) and the extent in the object-oriented data model (OODM). Relational Data Model (RDM) A logical modeling language (LML) commonly used in RDBMSs. It was de ned by E. F. Codd and captures concepts using relations, tuples, domains, primary keys, and foreign keys.
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similar (or identical) to Excel s worksheet functions. For example, the VBA function UCase, which converts a string argument to uppercase, is equivalent to the Excel worksheet function UPPER.
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A linear block code Cb (n, k) is constructed as a bijective assignment between the 2k message vectors and the set {c1 , c2 , . . . , c2k }. Each of these vectors is transmitted through the channel and converted into a received vector r that can be any vector of the 2n vectors of the vector space Vn de ned over the binary eld GF(2). Any decoding technique is essentially a decision rule, based on the vector space Vn being partitioned into 2k possible disjoint sets D1 , D2 , . . . , D2k such that the vector ci is in the set Di . There is a unique correspondence between the set Di and the vector ci . If the received vector is in Di , it will be decoded as ci . The standard array is a method for doing this operation [4, 6]. The array is constructed in the following way: A row containing the codewords, including and starting from the all-zero vector (0, 0, . . . , 0), is constructed. This row contains 2k vectors taken from the whole set of 2n possible vectors. c1 = (0, 0, . . . , 0) c2 c3 . . . c2k (47)
With most hard drives, the fuller they become, the slower they are. If your hard drive is stuffed to the brim with les and programs, you would bene t from transferring much of that data to a secondary hard drive (either an internal or external model will work ne). If you are unsure how to add another hard drive to your computer, consult a certi ed computer professional like Geeks On Call.
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