In this expression, the avalanche height, H, is equal to the exponential of the product of the probability coef cient of ionization (number of ionizing impacts per electron and unit distance in the direction of the electric eld) and electrode spacing. The avalanche height, H can also be expressed as the inverse of the probability coef cient of regeneration (number of new electrons released from the cathode per positive ion). These devices may also be limited by the resistance of the arc. Toepler, in 1906, established a relationship of the arc resistance in a discharge process [2]. Toepler s law states that the arc resistance at any time is inversely proportional to the charge that has owed through the arc R t kT D Zt
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Authentication for both DDBE users and components can be implemented using digital certi cates, as described above in the TLS protocol using client certi cates, or with user ID and password. Security tokens (in the form of a key fob or a credit cardsized device) are increasingly popular extensions to the user ID/password approach. They display a sequence of digits, which randomly change every 30 seconds or so. To authenticate, the user enters his/her user ID, the displayed digit sequence, and his/her PIN, creating a one-time password. This is known as two-factor authentication: something you have (the token) and something you know (the PIN). Biometrics offers a third factor to use for authentication: something you are (such as a ngerprint). After users are authenticated to the DDBE, they can only access resources if they are authorized to do so. If we model our DDBE security service on the traditional Relational Structured Query Language (SQL) approach, we can offer authorization control via the GRANT statement. If we execute the GRANT command on the left in Figure 9.4, the Alice DDBE Account will be granted the right to insert and delete rows in the Employee table. If we execute the GRANT command on the right in Example 9.1, the Alice User Account will be granted the right to read rows from the Employee table
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When the need arose to measure the Earth s shape, the so-called triangulation method was developed. The name is closely derived from the properties of triangles. There are many such properties that have led to the use of this geometrical structure in many domains. To measure the Earth, the property that is used is the following: A triangle is fully de ned by one side and the two adjacent angles.3 The idea of triangulation was rst to de ne a base line,4 thus de ning two points of the triangle and a segment length (precisely the one corresponding to the base line, of course). The next step was to carry out two angle measurements (see Fig. 4.2 for illustration):
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codes based on four 12-bit shift registers for P. The last point to be de ned with these codes was the cadency, that is, the rate or the frequency used to generate these codes. C/A has a total length of 1023 bits, while P has a total length of more than 2.35 1014 bits. The main idea was to allow rapid acquisition, identi cation, and measurement, even if the accuracy is not at its best for C/A, and for an improved accuracy and interference immunity for P, even if it is necessary to use the C/A signal for the rst pre-acquisition phase. Thus, the rate of C/A was chosen to be 1.023 MHz, leading to a 1 ms repeating code, and 10.23 MHz for the P code (which has a complete duration of 266 days). This much longer feature of the P code helps provide immunity to interference to a much higher degree than for the C/A code. It can easily be understood that this feature is of uppermost importance for military applications. Furthermore, the fact that the P code is ten times faster that the C/A one has also led to an improvement in the accuracy of the physical time measurement. Another point of interest is the number of frequencies that are going to be used for a given system. For both GPS and GLONASS, the precursors, two frequencies were used. The main reason for this was the fact that the main error source is the delay in the ionosphere. This high atmosphere layer is composed of ionized particles that have the direct effect of slowing down the information transmitted. Instead of propagating at the speed of light, it travels a little more slowly. This effect has to be taken into account when considering the translation from time measurement into pseudo range. The way this can be carried out is by modeling the ionosphere s thickness and the proportions of the ionized particles. Unfortunately, this modeling is very complex the thickness and the concentration of ionized particles depend on the effect of the Sun for instance. Thus, it appears to be dependent on season, on the Sun s activity, on the temperature, and of course on the actual path of the wave (thus it depends on the relative location of the satellite and the receiver on Earth), and so on. The modeling takes all these aspects into account, but the remaining error is still the largest part of the global error of the signal. Fortunately, the physics that lies behind the behavior of the ionosphere is non-linear (the ionosphere is a dispersive24 medium). Thus, having access to two measurements made at two different frequencies can help in totally removing this perturbing effect. As the reader can establish for himself, the P code is available on L1 and L2, unless the C/A code is only available on L1. P-code receivers thus have the ability to overcome the main error, but C/A receivers cannot. This was a deliberate choice of the U.S. and Soviet Union programs in-order to limit the availability of this dual frequency to authorized people only. A civil C/A code could have been sent on L2 also, but has not been. The only impact for the receiver is to deal with two frequencies instead of only one. Current electronics cannot deal with L1 and L2 using the same radio frequency front-end.25 In the case of a civil transmission on L2, the need for a more
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Cells are read back using natural language format. For example, 154.78 is read as one hundred fifty-four point seven eight. Date values are read as actual dates (for example, June fourteen, nineteen ninety-eight ) and time values are read as actual times (for example, six forty-five a.m. ). The companion CD-ROM contains a demo version of Sound-Proof 2000. The demo version s only limitation is that it reads no more than 12 cells at a time. The full version is available for $24.95. Ordering instructions are provided in the online Help file.
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