aprotic solvents have been determined by potentiometry with a glass electrode [19 a]. However, the slow response of the glass electrode (Section 6.2.2) is fatal in some non-aqueous solutions, in which the solvent or solute is not stable enough or the moisture introduced during the time-consuming measurement has serious effects on the results. As described above, the response of the pH-ISFET in nonaqueous solutions is much faster than that of the glass electrode [17]. We used the pH-ISFET successfully to study acid-base equilibria in c-butyrolactone, which is easily hydrolyzed and in which the glass electrode did not give reliable results [17 b]. The pH window is very wide in solvents that are weak both in acidity and basicity. The widths of the pH window are well over 30 in such solvents, compared to about 14 in water (Table 6.6). The usefulness of these expanded pH regions is discussed in Section 3.2.2. In particular, potentiometric acid-base titrations in such solvents are highly useful in practical chemical analyses as well as physicochemical studies [22]. Acid-base titrations in non-aqueous solvents were popular until the 1980s, but now most have been replaced by chromatographic methods. However, the pH-ISFETs are promising to realize simple, rapid and miniature-scale acid-base titrations in non-aqueous solvents. For example, by use of an Si3N4-type pH-ISFET, we can get an almost complete titration curve in less than 20 s in a solution containing several different acids [17 d]. Some redox processes consume or generate protons. Thus, some electrode reactions are influenced by the pH of the solution, while some conversely have an influence on the pH of the solution. In order to elucidate the electrode processes, it is desirable to measure both the pH of the solution and the electrode reaction. The relations between pH and the electrode processes have been well studied in aqueous solutions. However, in non-aqueous solutions, such studies have been scarce, except a few cases in recent years. This problem is dealt with in Section 8.3.1.
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When the number of interconnection lines in the single-level con guration of Fig. 4.4.2a is increased from 3 to 5, Fig. 4.4.17 shows that the crosstalk voltage at the load end of the rst-neighbor interconnections is reduced somewhat. This is due to the shielding effect of the second-neighbor lines. Crosstalk voltages induced at the load ends of the rst- and second-neighbor interconnections in the time range 0 200 ps are shown in Fig. 4.4.18. This gure shows that the crosstalk on the secondneighbor interconnections is much less than that on the rst-neighbor interconnections. This is because the coupling capacitance between the source line and the second-neighbor interconnection line is less than that for the rst-neighbor interconnection. The crosstalk can also be calculated for the bilevel interconnection con guration shown in Fig. 4.4.2b, and the crosstalk voltages induced at the load ends of the rst, fourth, and fth interconnections in the time range 0 200 ps are shown in Fig. 4.4.19. It can be seen that the crosstalk on the fth interconnection is the largest while that on the fourth interconnection is the smallest. This is because the fth interconnection line is located just below the source interconnection, which results in the coupling capacitance being the largest while the coupling capacitance between the source interconnection and the fourth interconnection is the smallest due to the shielding effects of the rst and the fth interconnections. Comparison of these results with those for the single-level interconnections shows that the crosstalk voltage induced on the rst-neighbor interconnections in the bilevel con guration is almost half of that in the single-level con guration. For the trilevel interconnection
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