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time period courts and the parties before them are deprived of this work. Moreover, many critics also note the nature of the scienti c enterprise which sometimes responds negatively to revolutionary ndings, because they might threaten entrenched paradigms and thus entrenched scientists (Horrobin, 1990). Proponents of this view observe that the ndings of a scientist heralded today as brilliant, but dismissed in his day as misguided or worse, would be excluded under a general acceptance test. Galileo, for example, or Einstein early in his physics career, would not have been allowed to testify because of the radical nature of their opinions. Commentators responding to this criticism of Frye argue that for every Galileo or Einstein there are hundreds of Lysenkos with revolutionary theories that are eventually proven false by empirical research. They maintain further that judges (and jurors) should not be expected to distinguish true scienti c revolutions from false ones. If scientists are unable to recognize an Einstein when they see one, laypersons are unlikely to have this ability (Faigman et al., 2002). Another asserted weakness of the Frye approach concerns the dif culty of ascertaining when a scienti c proposition has been generally accepted. The test does not specify what proportion of experts constitute general acceptance. Courts have never required unanimity, and anything less than full consensus in science can quickly resemble substantial disagreement. In fact, the most rigorous elds with the healthiest scienti c discourse might fail the Frye test with the greatest frequency. In light of the skeptical perspective of good scienti c investigation, judges should be cautious when they approach a eld in which there is too much agreement. Moreover, the Frye test requires general acceptance in the particular eld. But there are no standards de ning which eld to consult. Courts have had considerable dif culty assessing scienti c information under this standard because it often extends into more than one academic or professional discipline. Furthermore, each eld may contain subspecialties. This dif culty leads to paradoxical results. General acceptance, often criticized for being the most conservative test of admissibility, in practice can produce the most liberal standards of admission. The more narrowly a court de nes the pertinent eld, the more agreement it is likely to nd. The general acceptance test thus degenerates into a process of deciding whose noses to count. The de nition of the pertinent eld can be over-inclusive or under-inclusive. Because the pertinent eld can be so readily manipulated, the test by itself provides courts with little protection against shoddy science. Even more critically, the particular eld of inquiry leaves the law at the mercy of the practitioners of the respective elds. Different elds have widely varying standards. Some elds have a tradition of vigorous debate, data gathering, and hypothesis testing, an ethos consistent with the scienti c enterprise. In these elds, an idea does not become generally accepted until it passes a rigorous gauntlet of testing. Other elds lack these traditions and accept ideas with far less scrutiny. The courts have dif culty telling one of these elds from another. Indeed, and especially ironically for courts, they may mistake vigorous research and debate over the meaning of the ndings
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repayments must be made into nancial systems, additions credited to inventory, faults passed into the design database and so on. One part of the solution to effective handling of returns, as we shall see, is in machinereadable packaging labels. There is also the big issue of confusion: confusion over what is meant by the items in a purchase order, confusion over delivery conditions and whether they were met, confusion regarding where in the delivery path items actually are. (For the former, we need to establish consistent de nition of data terms between all parties involved, as described in the discussion on EDI in Part 2, Managing eBusiness Knowledge.) To resolve the location of goods problem, we can use package and/or vehicle tracking, as we shall see later in this chapter. There is often even confusion whether items actually exist in a warehouse. The author was once at a business-case presentation of a proposal for an integrated retail information system. This was laughed out by the retailer who pointed out that the model encouraged HQ to determine the distribution of goods direct to stores, based on calculating warehouse stock-holding as goods-in minus goods dispatched . With typical pilfering rates of 5 10%, this was likely to lead to disappointment. Systems must handle critical data, not just big data- ows, and provision of exception handling mechanisms is usually one important example of this.
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simple stage, and a surprisingly large throughput increase occurs. Thus, one reason today s last-mile bandwidth bottleneck is such a constraint is the increased size of the data objects that people use in multistep communication-based information processing. The pressure is to replace email with voice mail or video messages, thumbnail images with full-screen images, and static images with video. And yet to keep the productivity of the single-step continuum mode of multistep job handling, we need to be able to communicate all these objects with the same response time we have learned to live with for text commands or mouse clicks for local execution. As time goes on, the increasingly peer-to-peer nature of Web traf c will become more evident. The growth of symmetrical traf c loads, compared to the traditional asymmetrical case, has been widely noted and has been attributed to the rise of Webbased traf c and the proliferation of blogging and other modes in which the center is in a PC, not at some large information service provider. The example most often cited is music le sharing provided by Napster and its successors. Each of today s standalone ways of handling numbers, words, correspondence, images, and games can be seen to represent a special case of a larger universe of peer communication-based versions of the same thing. For example, sociologists have frequently commented on the antisocial nature of children s battles with aliens inside their own machine versus having your aliens battle someone else s aliens. Today, multiparty games have the needed resolution but not the needed rapid response time. Another point concerns videoconferencing and group collaborative processing. The long-standing vision of being more able to exchange communication for transportation has taken on a new urgency since the events of 9/11. The global nature of the workforce, with many people now living and working in one state or country for employers in another, today leads to separations of families and other situations that adequate bandwidth would alleviate. As for conferencing, the insuf ciencies of the available video conferencing and group collaboration technology send a large number of people onto airplanes to attend meetings of fairly simple structure for which today there is no adequate electronic substitute that provides the needed full interpersonal communication between multiple participants, complete with eye contact and other cues. The missing link is communication bandwidth since promising high-resolution display and stereo hi- audio technologies are well in hand. Then there are the unpredictable applications. While history shows that it is usually some unpredicted application that later becomes the most important one, it also shows that it is the predictable ones, like those just listed, that pay for the initial transition. For example, while email turned out unexpectedly to be the most important use of the Internet s parent, the ARPAnet, the promised resource sharing of a few very costly specialized computers was enough to justify ARPAnet s introduction economically. Some pundits think that breaking the bandwidth bottleneck of Figures 1.1 and 1.5 with ber will be so signi cant as to constitute a Second Coming of the PC, the rst one having been the 1980s revolution that empowered localized individual use of computer power. Closing the last-mile bottleneck seems highly likely to ignite a takeoff of communication-based multi-party and collective information processing. Many of these applications will be new ones that are dif cult to envision today. One may count on the inventiveness of Silicon Valley and Redmond, Washington, to think of new bandwidth-hungry things that we shall subsequently wonder how we ever lived without.
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securities. Tax-free yields tend to be lower relative to like-rated securities that are not tax-advantaged because of the tax-free advantage. While it should be expected that investors who might not be motivated by a tax-free opportunity might favor tax-free securities for a particular strategy (as when a total return-oriented portfolio manager believes that he may have spotted a mispriced relationship between taxables and nontaxables and wishes to capture it), tax-free securities are most likely to be found in pure tax-free funds and less likely to be found anywhere else.
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through a change of electrical potential level of 1 volt. One million volt-amperes are equal to 1 MW. Energy: Megawatt-Hour Recall the mechanical example, in which the energy input over a speci ed time duration is determined by multiplying the power input by the time duration. To determine the energy consumed in a circuit, one applies the same principle. This provides the standard unit of measurement for electric utilities, the megawatt-hour (MWH). One MWH is the amount of energy produced by a unit generating 1 MW of power over 1 hour. The size of a generation unit is measured by its power rating and is called the plant s capacity. By the de nitions above, a plant with a capacity of 400 MW is able to generate 400 MWH of energy in 1 hour.
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