and the other, established by DARPA [26], constitutes a large number of diverse Active Network projects. Similar de nitions can be found in the articles by Kalaiarul Dharmalingam and Martin Collier [44], where network programmability has been divided into the three categories: the Opensig initiative, Active Networks (AN), and Mobile Agents. An annual international conference IWAN [52] is dedicated to the research and development in the Active and Programmable networks technologies, systems, and services. In the following sections, the AN concept is described in more detail. ANs are packet-switched networks where packets can carry not only data but also code, or references to code, that will be executed at intermediate nodes as the packets propagate through the network. In the traditional network, each node performs only the processing necessary to forward packets towards their destination. In contrast, an AN is aware of the content of the packets that are owing through it, and is capable of making customized modi cations to the data within the packets. In other words, while traditional, `passive' network function is storeand-forward, the AN is store-compute-and-forward. The AN's ability to modify traf c is based on active routers and switches that are able to perform customized computation on the messages streaming through them. In contrast, the routers in common use nowadays are only able to modify the packet headers, not the payload. Active network components are not restricted to operating in networks formed purely from active components, but can also coexist and interoperate with legacy routers, which transparently forward datagrams to the active parts of the network [36,79]. Two main approaches exist for the realization of active networks: Programmable Node and Encapsulation. In the rst approach, programs are injected into the active node using a mechanism that is separate from normal data packet processing. With this approach, which uses existing network packet formats, the previously installed program is executed when data packets associated with it arrive at the node [36,79]. In contrast, using the Encapsulation approach a midget program is integrated into every packet, thus transforming existing data packets into capsules within the transmission frames. When a capsule arrives at an active node, an Execution Environment extracts, interprets, and executes the program. In this approach, the active node has built-in mechanisms to load the encapsulated code, an execution environment to execute the code, and permanent storage where programs can save and retrieve data. Regardless of the approach chosen, the main idea is the same. The AN customizes the content of data packets, and the behavior of the network can be altered dynamically by injecting new programs into the network nodes. The ability to inject software into the nodes bestows such bene ts as rapid application and protocol deployment, and rapid software updating and customization. These bene ts are achieved by downloading user-speci c programs and executing them when they are needed.
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An example of a fuzzy adaptation rule (with both numeric and symbolic features) generated from the rough-fuzzy method is as follows: IF Attr 1 smalljmediumjbigjsymbolic values
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When trying to remember how monetary policy works, keep in mind that it s actually a very simple three-step process. If a central Bank wants to help increase output, it initiates the following chain of events: 1. The Bank buys government bonds in order to increase the money supply. 2. The increased money supply causes interest rates to fall because the prices of bonds get bid up. 3. Consumers and businesses respond to the lower interest rates by taking out more loans and using the money to buy more goods. The hard part is remembering the counterintuitive fact that higher bond prices mean lower interest rates. But if you have a hard time remembering that, don t be embarrassed. Many economists get stuck on it too.
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A comparison between the voltage waveforms obtained using the compact expression (4.6.7) with that using SPICE (with each interconnection modeled as a 10-step RC ladder network) shows that the maximum error in the compact expression is less than 3% of VS1 . Simple expressions for the coupling capacitances between the interconnections can be derived from those given in Section 2.4. For a system of two lines on a ground plane, the coupling capacitance C12 is given by [27] "  1:08  0:32 #  1:38 T W S C12 eox 1:82 4:6:8 0:43 H H H while for a system of three interconnections on a ground plane, the coupling capacitances are given by [27] " C12 eox  1:1  0:31 #  1:45 T W S 1:93 1:14 0:51 H H H 4:6:9
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Different countries are responding differently to the imperatives we sketched out earlier and the availability of highly evolved FTTH technical solutions. In some countries geography dictates a need for solutions providing long reach as much as for high bit rates much more than can be provided by DSL (Figs. 1.7 and 1.8), while in others the distances are much smaller. In some countries, HDTV looms as a major emerging requirement, while in others it is not legal to bundle broadcast television service into a mix that also includes POTS or data. Some countries have a tradition of government funding of new technological directions of promise to the society, while other governments nd such top-down stimulus to be anathema, either because of risk aversion or due to the imperatives of a favored ideology. In some countries the driver is cable competition; in others competition from DSL, and in still others international competition. These differences between national cultures lead to a striking disparity in the degree to which developed countries have embraced broadband in general and FTTH in particular. By broadband we mean cable modems, DSL, or FTTx. Nation-by-nation differences are evident from Figure 5.1, which shows the percapita availability of broadband of all forms. It is seen that penetration is strongest in Asia, with Europe in second place and North America not even on the charts. This relative ranking is also shown in Figure 5.2, which gives FTTH penetration in terms of numbers of lines rather than the per-capita uptake of Figure 5.1. We now shall discuss in more detail the state of FTTH deployment in different parts of the globe.
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In the above analysis, we have assumed that the interconnects are open circuited at the load ends and the capacitance of the driving source has been neglected. It has been shown [21] that, for an interconnection driven by a large driver, neglecting the source capacitance causes about 5% error in the 50% delay time whereas neglecting both the driver and load capacitances results in an error of about 14%. For a detailed treatment of capacitively terminated single and coupled distributed RLC interconnects, readers are referred to [21].
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After 35 years in the field of internal auditing, I am of the opinion that systems are generally in place. My experience tells me business failures and incidents of financial statement fraud occur because existing controls were not operating, not because they were improperly designed and installed. Often, internal auditors are not permitted to do their jobs. Serious audit results impact executives, and many executives are resistant to change or feel threatened. Consequently, those who can make a difference are stifled.3
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ood events: a ood in 1991 with instantaneous discharge of 368 m3s-1 and a ood in 1993 with instantaneous discharge of 745 m3s-1. (Figure is modi ed from Stromberg et al., 1997.)
Records that are kept in the sole possession of the maker, are used only as a personal memory aid, and are not accessible or revealed to any other person except a temporary substitute for the maker of the record (34 C.F.R. 99.3)
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