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species of Darwin s ground nches (Allendorf et al., 1987). Within populations, coef cients of variation of phenotypic characters are usually far greater than 10% in sh, whereas they rarely exceed 5% in other vertebrates. In contrast, heritabilities are generally lower in sh, at least in morphological characters (Purdom, 1993). Such high phenotypic exibility was thought to reduce the selective differential between genotypes and thus slow down the rate of evolutionary change (Wright, 1931), but there is now evidence that the plasticity of a trait evolves independently from the trait itself (Via et al., 1995) and is thus an integral part in the evolutionary response to environmental change (Thompson, 1991). It is a common misconception that selection may change heritable characteristics within a population only over thousands of generations. Experiments with caged ies show that the resistance to ethyl alcohol vapours increased from a knock-down time of 5 minutes to 28 minutes in only 60 generations (Weber & Diggins, 1990). In sh, even faster reactions to selection pressures were observed in introduced guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations in Trinidad. Male guppies from a site with high predation introduced to a habitat without predators evolved new heritable life history parameters within only 4 years (approximately seven generations), while female traits changed after 11 years (18 generations) (Reznick et al., 1990). This fast adaptation to new environmental conditions illustrates the importance of adaptation in the evaluation of population responses to xenobiotics. It is worth considering how selection could be demonstrated by the molecular markers commonly employed by population geneticists. In some species, a higher sensitivity of certain allozyme genotypes to pollutants could be shown, for example, in mosquito sh (Gambusia holbrooki), stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (Diamond et al., 1989; Newman et al., 1989; Guttman, 1994). Often the mechanism of selection remained unknown, though in a few cases selection acting on the protein product of an allozyme locus itself has been demonstrated conclusively by establishing the superiority of certain allelic products (Gambusia holbrooki (Kramer & Newman, 1994), Campostoma anomalum (Guttman, 1994)). More usually, however, the observed differentiation is caused by selection acting on loci linked to the allozyme locus, rather than the marker itself (Maynard-Smith & Haigh, 1974). This is particularly true for most DNA markers (RAPD, microsatellites), which are presumed to be largely neutral to selection. Nevertheless, neutral DNA markers linked to genes involved in pollution tolerance have been used to identify tolerant individuals (Theodorakis et al., 1999). In addition to single-locus differentiation and changes in genetic variability, selection may be detectable by testing data against expectations under a neutrality model, i.e. no selection (Lewontin & Krakauer, 1973). If the observed data deviates signi cantly from expectations, the assumptions of the model, one of which is the absence of selection, are violated (Endler, 1986). Whilst it is dif cult to discard alternative explanations, the test may still be used to indicate the presence of selection. Genetic differentiation due to adaptation to pollutants may also be detectable by investigating temporal changes in genotype frequencies: if differentiation is due to selection, allele frequencies in the exposed populations would be expected to be similar to the starting trait distribution (Endler, 1986), and only in the course of generations to respond to selection. Clearly, such starting traits could be genotype frequencies estimated with molecular markers as well as non-molecular characters, such as tolerance measures, though with the latter measures, the genetic basis of the observed phenotypic variation has to demonstrated.
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(c) Figure 9.4 Use cases for broadband data access: (a) xed broadband access (wireless DSL); (b) portable broadband access (similar to hot spots); and (c) mobile broadband access (cellular data access).
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Figure 5-14 Abbe s theory for image formation in a light microscope. An objective lens focused on a grating (2f a f) in the object plane produces a magnified real image of the grating in the image plane. The diffraction plane is located at 1f in the back aperture of the lens. An incident planar wavefront is shown. Diffracted nth-order and nondiffracted 0th-order rays are separated in the diffraction plane, but are combined in the image plane.
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Progress in cost-reducing ber-laying technologies has progressed to the point that the actual cost of laying an underground FTTH network today ranges from $2 to $5 per foot using the combination of open trenching, plowing, and directional drilling that typical circumstances require. This is to be compared to $1.50 to $2.00 per foot for aerial deployment [Render]. Microtrenching, ductless direct burial, and directional boring do not by themselves allow later modi cations to be made to the number and nature of the cabling that they carry. For decades, tunnels or sizable metallic ducts within buildings and under the streets have been the standard way for telephone, cable and power companies to deal with this exibility problem. Now a miniaturized version of such solutions is available in the form of the plastic ducts and subducts, an example of which is shown in Figure 4.7. Subducts are typically available in sizes down to 5 to 8 mm, and ducts (bundles of subducts) are available in a wide variety. In the case of directional drilling, these ducts are pulled into the hole after the drilling is completed. They are often installed with the initial complement of ber already in place inside. Or, analogously to dark ber (installed, but as yet unused runs of ber), it is now economical and practical to install dark ducts, empty, but usable in the future. It is nice to be able to have such a exible pay as you grow facility, but if such ber pathways are subject to change, how does one remove any existing bers and insert new ones Removal is the simpler of the two problems. By having the duct or subduct interior surface suitably lubricated at manufacture, removing ber bundles by pulling, while maintaining tension within the 600-lb standardized limit, is a soluble problem. As for installing the ber, new cable is usually pulled down the duct behind a pilot length of strong pulling cable inserted previously. Today, the problem of future-proo ng the installation, that is, facilitating insertion of new or replacement cabling, has been effectively dealt with by the invention in 1982
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