constellation point and its three adjacent constellation points the same. However, the optimumringratiowheretheBERreachesitsminimumisSNR dependent. The optimum ring ratio versus the SNR per symbol is plotted in Figure A.7(b). It canbe observed that when the SNRis lower than 8dB, theoptimum ring ratio increases sharply. Since thecorresponding BER improvement was however less than O.ldB even at SNRs near OdB, the fixed ring ratio of p = 1 fi can be used for all SNR values. Figure A.8(a) compares the BER of 8-level Star QAM and 8-PSK. Observe that 8-level Star QAM exhibits an approximately IdB SNR performance gain, when the SNR is below 2dB, but above this SNR the SNR gain becomes marginal.. Let us now consider 16-level Star QAM. The corresponding phasor constellation is given in Figure AS(b). Since the average symbol power is the same as that of 8-level Star QAM, Equation A.66 can be used for determining a. The BER analysis for the fourth bit, namely for b4 is exactly the same as that 8-level Star QAM and the corresponding value of P 4is of b given in (A.69). Since the first three bits, namely b l , b2 and by, are 8-PSK modulated, their BER can be expressed as:
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A significant investment in employee and management training may be required if a KM program is to succeed. Knowledge Management works best when employees and management willingly and regularly contribute to the pool of corporate knowledge. However, willingness
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Because the system case is rarely (and in many cases, never) opened, the inside of the system case isn t usually cleaned regularly, if at all. However, I recommend that you do clean the system case regularly, especially if the PC is located in a dusty environment or in one with airborne particles that could be sucked inside the PC s case, such as oil mist or metal particles. The power supply s cooling fan either pulls air into or pushes air out of the system case, depending on the age of the system. Regardless, air passes in or out the air vents on the case, which is reason enough for the system case to be on your list of regularly cleaned items. For example, a mid-tower PC case that sits on the floor in an office, bedroom, or family room accumulates dust either around its air vents or on the grill or blades of the fan, or both. If not cleaned, the dust could eventually clog the cooling system, accumulate on the processor s heatsink and fan or on the motherboard, and cause the processor and memory to overheat and malfunction. At minimum, you should clean inside the PC s case at least once every six months. Use a soft brush vacuum cleaner made for cleaning PCs or compressed air to blow the dust out of the case (wear eye protection).
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when your spouse and children no longer have a reason to be afraid of you and when you no longer have to worry about exploding at work and jeopardizing your job. 3. Visualize how your life will change once you have transformed your anger style into a healthier, more effective one. Envision yourself coping with and expressing your anger in positive ways. For example, if you are an Avoider, visualize yourself being able to stand up to the people in your life who have taken you for granted or walked all over you. Hear yourself calmly but rmly insisting on being treated with respect. Feel the satisfaction and self-respect you deserve. Whenever the going gets tough and you begin to question why you are putting in so much effort to change your anger style, take a look at your list or reread the narrative you wrote. Continue to visualize how your life will be transformed once you ve accomplished your goal.
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Figure 2-17: A ZIF-style socket.
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Case Study No.2
In applying superposition in this case, each source is
= jwMI I + jwL 2 I 2
So how did you do
In 17, I explain how you can put the titleblock on a layout. A layout simulates the sheet of paper that you will use to plot the drawing. If you use a layout, you don t need to leave room for the titleblock when you set the limits.
The fast Kalman filter is another efficient RLS implementation (actually the earliest such implementation); its equations are in essence similar to what we have done so far for FTF and FAEST except that they rely on propagating the gain vector g M , i instead of its normalized version C M , ~ . The update of g M , i is based on equations (38.13) and (38.23), as we shall explain below. Also, the fast Kalman filter does not use the conversion factors to
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