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Layers in Hosts, Switches, and Routers. Not all components of a packet network perform functions corresponding to all the layers (Table 20.1-2): hosts (packet endpoints) perform functions corresponding to all seven layers, while switches and routers (intermediate nodes) perform functions corresponding to Layers 1 3 only. Speci cally, switches operate at Layers 1 and 2; routers operate at Layers 1 3. The Routing Process in Switches and Routers. This process can be summarized as path determination plus interworking between incoming and outgoing links. When a router s Layer 2 receives a L2 PDU (from the incoming link s queuing buffer), it strips the L2 header and trailer and passes the resulting packet to Layer 3 for processing. The L3 logic uses the L3 header to decide which outgoing data link to forward the packet to (routing) and then passes the packet, unchanged, to the L2 logic that controls the chosen outgoing data link ( forwarding). The L2 logic adds a new L2 header and trailer to match the characteristics of the outgoing data link and then puts the reencapsulated L2 PDU into the outgoing link s queuing buffer. So, while L2 headers and trailers are replaced every time a packet goes through a router; L3 headers are processed but left unchanged. Switches only process the L2 header (without replacing it) and use it to route the packet to the appropriate outgoing port. L4 headers are ignored by switches and routers and are processed only by the originating and terminating host. The above observations are summarized in Table 20.1-2. Note. The description of packet-based communication thus far has been based on classic routing, as done in the Internet, where all packets are treated equally. When quality of service (QoS) considerations come into play (e.g., when certain types of packets must be given higher priority), different schemes that deviate from what is described above may be used. For instance, a router may look into the L4 header to help with routing decisions or may use label switching. In label switching a short additional header (called a label ) is prepended to the packet; the label is replaced at every node and is used to speed up routing and to facilitate QoS enforcement.
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sends an off-hook (answer signal). During the conversation, both exchanges are sending off-hook. In this example, the called party clears rst, and exchange B starts sending on-hook (clear-back signal). When the calling party clears, exchange A releases the trunk and sends on-hook (clear-forward). In response, exchange B clears the trunk at its end. The signaling system does not include a release-guard signal. Therefore, when outgoing exchange A releases the trunk, it starts a timer that expires after 0.75 1.25 s. The exchange does not seize the trunk for a new call until the timer has expired. This gives incoming exchange B the time to release the trunk at its end. Double Seizures. On bothway trunks, double seizures of the trunk by both exchanges can occur. After exchange A seizes a trunk (Fig. 4.2-1), it expects to receive a backward change to off-hook that represents the leading edge of the wink signal. However, this change may also mean that exchange B (at the distant end of the trunk) is sending a seizure signal. After sending a seizure signal, the outgoing exchange thus has to time the duration of the received off-hook. The nominal length of the wink is 140 290 ms. Therefore, the exchanges are arranged to recognize a return on-hook within, say, 100 l000 ms as wink. If the off-hook duration exceeds 1 s, a double seizure has been detected. There are several ways to deal with a double seizure. For example, both exchanges can be programmed to release the trunk and make a second attempt to set up their calls, trying to seize a trunk in the same trunk group or a trunk in a later-choice group. 4.2.2 Supervision Signaling on FDM Analog Trunks
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The main MySQL configuration file, my.cnf, is where Ubuntu specifies most of the MySQL server settings. There are several system settings that you can modify to alter the default behavior of the MySQL server. Table 24-1 shows some of the settings that you may want to know about.
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Figure 51-2: Opening multiple Query Editor windows is the best way to experiment with transactions. Here, the transaction in the left window updated the nickname to Transaction Fault but did not commit the transaction. The transaction on the right selected the Nickname column and read Transaction Fault.
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Traditionally, photomultipliers have been the preferred photosensors for GPSCs. As the secondary scintillation for Xe lies in the VUV (170 nm) and is rather intense (about 105 VUV photons per 5.9 keV X-ray) the photomultiplier needs to have a high purity quartz window (Spectrosil B) and a small number of dynodes8 like the EMI D676 QB. However, since photomultipliers are expensive, bulky and fragile, efforts have been made to nd other alternatives. Following the early use of photoionization chambers with TMAE39 recent work has put emphasis on the use of microstrip plate detectors with CsI and photodiodes. In a compact implementation40 depicted in Figure 4.2.17, a standard microstrip plate (MSP)
In the ray-launching approach, the transmit antenna sends out (launches) rays into different directions. Typically, the total spatial angle 4 is divided into N units of equal magnitude, and each ray is sent in the direction of the center of one such unit (i.e., uniform sampling of the spatial angle) (see Figure 7.8). The number of launched rays is a tradeoff between accuracy of the method and computation time.
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