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The hot-carrier effect (HCE) and its consequences on transistor operation have been known and examined since the late 1970s1 ,2 . Because this effect leads to a gradual change in the drive current and threshold voltages of devices and in time, leads to potential circuit failure, considerable effort has been expended to understand, characterize, and reduce either the hot carrier, or the susceptibility of the transistor to this type of long-term reliability concern. In this chapter we discuss the hot-carrier effect in n- and p-channel transistors. After a brief introduction to carrier heating (Section 6.1), the types of damage existing in the oxide/substrate interface are discussed (Section 6.2), followed by a description and characterization of the damage occurring for the different gate and drain voltage conditions of stress (Section 6.3). Having explored the damage species generated for each of the different gate stress voltage conditions (and high drain voltage), we discuss the lifetimes of devices for each damage species (each gate voltage region of stress), and these are linked to transistors working in a circuit environment: ac stress (Section 6.4). Following this, the different methods of characterizing hot-carrier damage that have been published are briefly explored in Section 6.5. Section 6.6 deals with the various "structural" aspects of the transistor, such as gate oxide thickness scaling, poly-length scaling, and junction design, while the processing aspects that have been found to affect the transistor's hot-carrier hardness are dealt with in Section 6.7. This includes oxide processing (the various flavors of nitridation), plasma processing effects (antenna damage), and other processing steps that affect the HC properties of the device. Finally some conclusion will be drawn in Section 6.8 regarding the hot-carrier effect, and the trends expected in the future.
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amers, start your engines. Part VII is nothing short of a crash course on all things gaming in Windows Vista Ultimate. You ll learn everything you need to know about gaming, from general game conventions and options to streamlining your games for performance and peak visual quality. This part contains info on calibrating your controllers, organizing games using the new Games folder, and integrating Windows Vista with Microsoft s Xbox 360, the first of the nextgeneration gaming consoles.
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In a number of cases, the nodes in the network know their geographic position. This can be achieved either by Global Positioning System GPS localization (if the nodes have built-in GPS RXs), or by other localization mechanisms (e.g., based on eld strength maps, time-of- ight ranging, etc.). Routes can be designed based on this geographic information though it is noteworthy that geographic distance between two nodes forming a link and SNR of that link is not monotonic if there is fading a fact that is sometimes ignored in the networking literature. In the (over-) simpli ed picture of a path gain that is determined by distance only, each transmitting node is surrounded by a coverage disk of radius R, such that every node in the disk can hear the transmission, and all nodes outside the disk cannot hear it. Geographical routing schemes are based on the concept of progress toward the destination. Greedy schemes, which are the most popular geographical schemes, pick the node within the coverage disk that has the smallest distance to the destination. Alternatively, they can maximize the projection of the link connecting the transmitting node to a particular receiving node, onto the line connecting the transmitting node to the destination; this approach is called most forward within radius. An example of how those two algorithms behave is given in Figure 22.10; however, it must be emphasized that in most cases the two algorithms nd the same path. When greedy approaches fail to advance the message to the destination, networks can go into recovery mode. This occurs when the message arrives at so-called concave nodes, which have no neighbor that is closer to the destination than themselves. An easy way out is to momentarily use ooding, i.e., concave nodes ood their neighbors with the message, and subsequently reject any further copies of the message (to avoid that the neighbor sends the message back to the concave node, which after all is close to the destination). After this ooding step, the routing continues using a greedy mode.
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17 Table 17.3 Comparing Active Directory to Sun s Directory Services by Requirement (Continued) ROLE ACTIVE DI RECTORY Built-in LDAP-based change history interfaces facilitate use as a meta-directory platform. Catalog architecture enables fast, efficient query of a large number of objects. Directory-Enabled Infrastructure and Directory-Enabled Applications Strong support from leading vendors. Windows NT provides a rich development environment that is supported by many tools. Provides the scalability required to ensure that applications can store, access, and manage millions of objects without application-level complexity. Provides LDAP-based access to all features. NDS No centralized management. As there is no catalog architecture in SDS, users rely on LDAP s slower referral mechanism where every extra server must be known beforehand. Little vendor support. SDS supports only native LDAP APIs. SDS applications use the cumbersome referral mechanism to span partitions. Data stores limited to a million objects.
a specific format, which is explained in Request for Comments (RFC) 1035. The following excerpt from RFC 1035 defines the structure of an RR.
SELECT Tour.Name, Event.Code, Event.DateBegin FROM Tour JOIN Event ON Tour.TourID = Event.TourID FOR XML AUTO
Although some parts of the UNSPSC schema might be more stable than other parts, it is clear that this amount of changes cannot be ignored. Such a high change rate can quickly invalidate a lot of the actual classi cations of products. For example, the product Binding elements in version 8.0 is removed from the standard and three new products are added in version 8.1 ( Binding spines or snaps , Binding coils or wire loops , and Binding combs or strips ). This means that all products that were classi ed as Binding elements are unclassi ed under the new version. An analysis of differences between two version of content standards has yielded the following list of typical changes: class-title changes, additions of classes, relocations of classes in the hierarchy (by moving them up or down in the hierarchy, or horizontally), relocations of a whole subtree in the hierarchy, merges of two classes (in two variants: two classes become one new class, or one class is appended to the other class), splits of classes, and pure deletions. However, current versioning techniques for content standards are often quite simple. In UNSPSC, for example, all changes are encoded as either additions, deletions or edits (title changes). This means that the relocation of a subtree is speci ed as a sequence of delete a list of classes and add a list of classes .
For stationary processes r ( n ) and d ( n ) this yields the discrete form of the so-called Wiener-Hopf equation:
so it must perform a table scan instead, as demonstrated in Figure 8-1. It s like looking for all the Paul s in the telephone book. The phone book isn t indexed by first name, so each page must be scanned. With this in mind, Microsoft reengineered one of its search engines (Site Server Search designed to provide search services for websites) to provide search services for SQL Server 7 (in late 1998). The engine was called MSSearch and it also provided search services to Exchange Content Indexing and SharePoint Portal Server 2001. A different version of MSSearch shipped with the release of SQL Server 2000. SQL 2005 full-text search (FTS) is the third-generation search component for SQL Server, and this new version is by far the most scalable and feature-rich. SQL 2005 full-text search ships in the Workgroup, Standard, and Enterprise versions of SQL Server. The search engine that ships with SQL Server 2005 is called MSFTESQL and is disabled by default by the SQL Server Surface Area Configuration Tool. To enable MSFTESQL, launch the SQL Server Surface Area Configuration Tool and select Surface Area Configuration for Services and Components; expand your MSSQLServer instance and drill down on the Full-Text Service node. Configure this service to have a Startup Type of run automatically. Basically, full-text indexing builds an index of every significant word and phrase and thus solves the performance problem. In addition, the full-text search engine adds advanced features such as the following: Searching for one word near another word Searching with wildcards Searching for inflectional variations of a word (such as run, ran, running) Weighting one word or phrase as more important to the search than another word or phrase Performing fuzzy word/phrase searches Searching character data with embedded binary objects stored with SQL Server
19.4.2 Handoff Example Figure 19.4-1(b) shows the remote operations for the handoff of mobile station MS from MSC-A to MSC-B [4]. The handoff is done in a sequence of two transactions. Handoff Measurement. The rst transaction consists of one operation. It is started by MSC-A, with a handoff measurement invoke (HOMEAS). This requests MSC-B to measure the signal strengths of the MS (on the reverse voice channel of VC-U) received in the cells of MSC-B s service area that are adjacent to cell X. The return-result (homeas) contains a list of target cells (cells in which the signal from MS is received with adequate strength and are therefore candidates for the handoff). Facilities Directive. The second transaction consists of two operations. From the list of target cells, MSC-A selects cell Y. It then seizes a trunk T3 in its handoff trunk group to MSC-B and starts a facilities-directive operation with a FACDIR invoke that requests MSC-B to set up the connection between T3 and a voice channel in cell Y. MSC-B selects an available voice channel VC-V of base station BS-Y. It connects T3 to trunk T4 (associated with VC-V) and then sends a facdir return-result. The return-result is sent in a TCAP conversation message, which ends the rst operation but continues the transaction (Section 16.1.4). On receipt of the facdir, MSC-A connects trunk T1 to trunk T3, signals the MS to tune to VC-V, and releases T2 and its associated RF voice channel (VC-U) see Fig. 19.4-1(c). The facdir return result is sent in a TCAP response package (Section 16.2.1) and the transaction continues. Mobile on Channel. When MSC-B detects the presence of a signal from MS on VC-V, it starts a mobile-on-channel operation with a MOCH invoke. This operation merely indicates that the handoff is successful and does not require a response. The invoke is therefore sent in a TCAP response package that ends the transaction. Facilities Release. At the end of the call, trunks T1, T3, and T4 and the RF equipment of associated voice channel VC-V have to be released. In Fig. 19.4-1(d), MSC-A has received a disconnect signal on trunk T1. It then releases trunks T1 and T3 at its end and initiates a facilities-release operation, sending a FACREL invoke. This requests MSC-B to release trunk T3 and the equipment in its part of the connection. MSC-B releases trunks T3 and T4 and the RF equipment of VC-V. It then con rms the release with a return-result (facrel), in a TCAP response package that ends the transaction. If the MS user disconnects rst, the MS starts sending signaling tone on voice channel (VC-Y) ( 12). This is detected by MSC-B, which then initiates the release of the facilities.
3: Working with Sketches
Structure of a decision feedback equalizer.
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