UMTS networks currently are being upgraded with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), which sometimes is characterized as a 3.5G technology. HSDPA promises to increase theoretical downlink data rates to 14.4 Mbps, although current implementations support speeds more typically in the range of 400 700 kbps, bursting up to 3.6 Mbps for short periods of time using an adaptive modulation technique to throttle bit rates up and down as the link permits. HSDPA has been introduced on a limited basis in Austria, Finland, Japan, South Africa, and the United States (Cingular) [26]. Work has begun in the standards bodies on High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA). Once increased speeds are in place on both the downlink and uplink, simultaneous voice, data, and even video calls will be quite possible. Code Division Multiple Access 2000 Developed by Qualcomm, the company that commercialized CDMA, Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000) is a 3G system based on earlier CDMA versions (also known as TIA/EIA IS-95a and IS-95b). CDMA2000 (also known as IS-856) has been approved by the ITU-R as part of the IMT-2000 family. The initial version, known as CDMA2000 1 RTT (one times Radio Transmission Technology, with one times referring to standard channel width), offers 2.5G capabilities within a single standard 1.25-MHz channel, effectively doubling the voice capacity of the predecessor 2G cdmaOne systems and offering theoretical data speeds up to 153 kbps (throughput in the range of 70 90 kbps) through the use of QPSK modulation. An enhanced 3G version known as 1 EV-DO (one carrier EVolution-Data Optimized) is a HighData-Rate (HDR) version that employs 16-QPSK modulation in support of a peak data rate of 2.4 Mbps on the downlink and 153 kbps on the uplink. 1 EV-DO supports average aggregate throughput in a fully loaded three-sectored cell of 4.1 Mbps on the downlinks and 660 kbps on the uplinks, with dynamically assigned data rates providing each user with optimum throughput at any given moment. 1 EV-DO can run in any band (e.g., 450, 800, 1800, and 1900 MHz) and can coexist in any type of network (e.g., CDMA2000, cdmaOne, GSM, TDMA, and AMPS). CDMA2000 runs in the 800-MHz and 1.8 2.0-GHz spectrum. GSM1x is a version designed as a transition speci cation for GSM operators, involving dual-mode phones. Also known as IS-2000-A, 3x is an enhancement that uses three cdmaOne carriers for total bandwidth of 3.75 MHz. This supports data rates up to 2 Mbps by spreading a multicast signal over the three carriers. In North America, Bell Canada, Sprint Nextel, and Verizon Wireless (800 MHz) have committed to CDMA2000 [26, 34 40]. In August 2006, however, Sprint Nextel announced plans to invest up to US$3 billion on an 802.16e, aka mobile WiMAX, network that the company expects to be operational in 2008. Mobile WiMAX is based on Intel technology, rather than Qualcomm s CDMA. Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard being developed in the People s Republic of China (PRC) by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT) and adopted by the 3GPP as UTRA TDD 1.28Mcps Option. TD-SCDMA is based on CDMA but uses TDMA as well, with the uplink signal synchronized by the base station. The use of TDMA reduces the number of users contending for each time slot, which has the effect of reducing the technical complexity of the system but at
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Cookieless session state All of the options mentioned so far also allow you to set the sessions so that they employ a cookieless option. This is for visitors to your site who choose to have cookies disabled in their browsers. You enable the cookieless session state environment by setting the cookieless property in the sessionState node of the web.config file to true- as shown here: <sessionState mode="StateServer"
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Figure 7.3-3 shows the message transfer primitives between MTP3 and a MTP-user at a signaling point. On outgoing messages, the user passes a MTP-transfer request that includes the user message and the parameters in SIO and RL. On incoming messages, MTP3 delivers these data to the MTP-user, in a MTP-transfer indication that contains the same information.
Asynchronous Data Link Control (DLC) protocols are used primarily for low-speed data communications between PCs and other very small host computers. Framing occurs at the byte level, with each byte surrounded by a start bit (a 0 bit) and a stop bit (a 1 bit). A parity bit often accompanies each character as well. Telex transmission incorporates an additional stop bit. Kermit and XMODEM are asynchronous protocols, organizing information into 128-byte packets. Kermit also uses CRC error control. The data also can be blocked at the application level, and adding the technique of LRC can complement VRC for improved error control. 6.3.8 Bit- versus Byte-Oriented Synchronous Protocols
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The mysql command provides an interactive interface to the MySQL server. When you start the command, you ll get an interactive prompt:
Figure 19.3-3. Parameters in location request messages. (From IS-41.5-B. Reproduced with permission of TIA.)
Table 4.3: Selection criteria for choosing rm,the maximum normalised path delay [296,297].
Deployment preparation Deployment tools Publishing with DISCO and UDDI Deploying a Web Service enables it to execute on a specific host Web server, whereas publishing a Web Service enables potential consumers to locate and interrogate the capabilities of the Web Service before actually calling any methods of the service. This chapter discusses what you need to do before deploying a Web Service, the options for deploying and publishing a Web Service using .NET techniques, and the support built into Visual Studio.
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