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The sensing of primary (and other secondary) users would be greatly facilitated by the introduction of Cognitive Pilot Channels (CPCs) [Zhang et al. 2008]. The procedure for using the CPC can include the following three phases: The wireless network/terminal rst listens to the CPC at the initialization. The wireless network/terminal gets the information and selects the most suitable one to setup its communications. The CPC is broadcasted to a wide area (e.g., Personal Area Network (PAN)). However, a CPC has to be agreed upon by a wide range of standardized devices, and thus constitutes a formidable logistics/standardization problem.
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With the popularity of email, it s no surprise that the DNS system makes a special accommodation for defining email servers. This is done using the MX records. The MX records instruct remote mail servers where to forward mail for your zone. The format of the MX record is
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Once you ve whittled the list down to two or four contenders, it s time to evaluate them and understand which features are available in each product edition. There are various ways to present this kind of information, but we find that tables, logically divided by category, are easy on the eyes and mind. Tables 1-1 through 1-9 summarize how the product editions stack up.
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The Alcatel solution relies on an intelligent MIP client that can even accommodate access networks with no FA support. When no FA functionality is available in the visited network, the client acquires a Co-located Care of Address and tunnelling is done all the way to the terminal. Roaming The Alcatel solution supports two roaming methods: IP roaming, which makes use of the AAA mechanisms GSM roaming using SS7 mechanisms
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19.1 Introduction
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7. With the Line tool activated while still in the 3D sketch, Ctrl-click the flat end face that the previous dimension referenced. This moves the red space handle origin to the selected face, and constrains any new sketch entities to that face. You are still in the 3D sketch, but are constrained to the selected plane, and still must play by all of the 3D sketch rules. The elements of 3D sketches are described in detail in 31. 8. Turn on the Temporary Axes view by selecting View Temporary Axes. 9. Place the cursor near the center of the activated end face; a small, black circle appears, indicating that the end point of the line will pick up a coincident relation to the temporary axis. Draw the line so that it picks up an AlongX sketch relation. The cursor shows the relations about to be applied, just like in a 2D sketch. 10. Draw a second line again from the center, but this time do not pick up any automatic relations. This line should also be on the flat end face.
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where C is the maximum achievable information transfer rate of the channel, W is the channel bandwidth in hertz, and S/N is the signal-to-noise power ratio in the bandwidth [Sha48]. Stated succinctly, the essence of Shannon s work on channel capacity is as follows: If we take increasingly long sequences of source information bits and map them into correspondingly long transmission waveforms, the error rate in the delivered data can be brought arbitrarily close to zero, as long as we do not attempt to transmit data at a rate higher than C. Therefore, at any nonzero level of channel
Traditional wireless communications are based on point-to-point communication, i.e., only two nodes are involved in the communication of data. These two nodes are, e.g., the Base Station (BS) and Mobile Station (MS) in a cellular setting, access point and laptop in wireless Local Area Networks (LANs), or two MSs in peer-to-peer communications. Other wireless transmitters (TXs) and receivers (RXs) that are in the surroundings compete for the same (spectral) resources, giving rise to interference. In contrast, this chapter deals with the situation that some nodes consciously help other nodes to get the information from the message source to the intended destination. This help can be provided either by dedicated relays, i.e., relays that never act as source or destination of the information, but whose sole purpose is to facilitate the information exchange of other nodes; peer nodes acting as relays. Such peer nodes, e.g., mobile handsets or sensor nodes, can change their roles depending on the situation at hand sometimes they help to forward information and sometimes they act as a source or destination. The introduction of relay nodes creates more degrees of freedom in the system design, which can help to improve the performance, but also complicates the design process. We now show how cooperative communications arises as a logical nal result of a network structure that strives to get better and better ef ciency and coverage. As a starting point, consider the three-node network in Figure 22.1a, where, for simplicity, we assume that only free-space attenuation (and no fading) occurs on each link. Imagine a situation where node A does not have enough transmit power to send a data packet directly to node C . However, it can, in a rst step, transmit the data packet to the intermediate node B . Node B retransmits the packet (e.g., by completely demodulating/decoding it, and then re-encoding and retransmitting), and this retransmission can then be received by node C . This simple two-hop approach doubles the range of the network. Extending this approach to
modulated RF signal can be transmitted, it must be ampli ed in an RF power ampli er. The major performance requirements of the power ampli er are the following: 1. to amplify the RF power from the upconverter to 30 40 dBm, 2. to generate this power with high ef ciency, and 3. to not distort the digital modulation during the amplifying process. RF power ampli ers are either bipolar transistors or eld effect transistors (FETs), but they are different from their low frequency counterparts because of transit time effects. Transit time effects occur because the electrons travel through the semiconductor material of the RF transistor at approximately 1/3000 of the velocity of light or 105 m/s. This is not a problem with low frequency transistors, but it is de nitely a problem with RF transistors. To understand how critical the transit time effect is, realize that at 1 GHz, one RF cycle is 1 ns (1029 s). In one cycle at 1 GHz, the electrons will travel 105 m/s 1029 s 100 microns (mm). For reasonable performance the electrons must move through the transistor in less than one-tenth of a cycle, which means the spacing between doping regions in the transistor must be less than 10 mm. At 10 GHz, the spacings must be less than 1 mm. RF power ampli ers use two techniques to achieve the required transit times: reduced spacings between transistor elements and use of semiconductor materials like gallium arsenide (GaAs) and silicon germanium (SiGe), in which electrons move faster than they do in silicon. Figure 1.17 shows a measurement of a typical RF power ampli er made with a VNA. For this measurement, the VNA is adjusted to measure and display gain and output power as a function of RF input power at a single frequency of 2.45 GHz. The VNA is calibrated with a power meter, so the output power measurement has only +0.2 dBm uncertainty. The gain measurement is calibrated with the VNA standards, and so it has an uncertainty of only +0.05 dB. The input power is swept over the power range from 7 to 13 dBm, so each horizontal scale division is 2 dBm. The left-hand graph shows the gain in decibels and the right-hand graph shows the output power in decibels relative to 1 mW. At the left-hand edge of each graph, the ampli er is operating in the linear range, where the RF output power is exactly proportional to the RF input power. At the right-hand edge of each graph, the ampli er is operating approximately at saturation. The markers on both graphs are set at the 1 dB compression point, where the gain has dropped from its linear value by 1 dB. Figure 1.17 shows characteristics that are common to all RF ampli ers. Every RF ampli er has a nonlinear output power versus input power curve because the ampli er cannot generate more power that its battery supplies. Typical ampli er ef ciency is about 50% at saturation, which is its maximum power output point. Most RF transistors draw the same power from their battery, regardless of whether they are operated at full power or at an input level that provides very little output power. At small output power levels, the RF output power is proportional to the RF input power. This is called the linear range. Operation near saturation causes distortion. Operation in the linear range causes low ef ciency. The usual compromise is to use a 2 higher
The default value for the scale variable is zero. Before the scale value is set, the bash calculator provides the answer to zero decimal places. After setting the scale variable value to four, the bash calculator displays the answer to four decimal places. The -q commandline parameter suppresses the lengthy welcome banner from the bash calculator. Besides normal numbers, the bash calculator also understands variables:
Figure 10.4-2 shows only those messages in the sequence of Fig. 10.4-1 that play a role in informing the exchange and the TEs about assignments and releases of B-channels and CRVs. Assignment of CRVs. The calling terminal TE-P assigns CRV1 for its messages to and from the exchange and includes it in the SETUP message sent to the exchange. The exchange copies CRV1 and includes it in all messages to TE-P. The exchange selects CRV2 for messages to and from the called terminal and includes it in its SETUP message to the called DSL-Q. If TE-Q accepts the call, it copies CRV2 and uses it in its messages to the exchange. Assignment of B-Channels. B-Channels BCl and BC2, on the calling and called DSLs, are assigned by the exchange when it receives the SETUP message from the calling TE. To identify the assigned channels, the exchange includes an IE.7 (channel identi cation) in its CALPRC message to TE-P and in its SETUP message on the called DSL-Q. Release of B-Channels and CRVs. At the end of the call, CRVs and B-channels have to be released at both ends. The release of BC2 and CRV2 is described rst, because it occurs rst in the signaling sequence of our example. When the exchange receives the DISC message from TE-Q, it releases BC2 at its end and sends a RLSE message to TE-Q. In response, TE-Q releases BC2 at its end, sends a RLCOM message to TE-P, and then discards CRV2. When the exchange receives the RLCOM, it returns CRV2 to its pool of CRVs. BC2 and CRV2 are now available for new calls. The release of BC1 and CRV1 is done in a similar manner. When TE-P receives the DISC message, it releases BC1 at its end and sends a RLSE message to the exchange. The exchange then releases the channel at its end, sends a RLCOM message to TE-P, and then discards CRV1. On receipt of the RLCOM, TE-P returns CRV1 to its pool of CRVs. BC1 and CRV1 are now available for new calls. 10.4.3 Called Terminal Selection An ISDN user generally has TE of several types on a DSL. When making a call, the calling user has to include one or more TE-selection IEs in the SETUP message, to indicate the type of TE to which the caller wants to be connected. The selection of a called TE is described below [3,10]. Each TE on a DSL needs to examine all received SETUP messages, to determine whether its type is appropriate for the incoming call. The local exchange therefore sends SETUP messages in a frame with TEI 127, which is the broadcast address to all TEs on a DSL. The SETUP message sent includes all TE-selection IEs received from the calling user. Each TE stores one or more of these IEs, which are entered when the TE is installed. A TE compares the values of a received IE.n with the value of the corresponding stored IE.n. If there is a mismatch in any of the received and stored IE
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The geographical model tends to be consistent. After all, the names of the cities used in Figure 18-3 are not going to change anytime soon. This model tends to be more exible compared to the organizational model. The major disadvantage is that geographical naming doesn t represent your company s true structure. Another possibility is a mixture of the preceding two models. Because both models have some advantages and disadvantages, using the mixed-model approach may prove a bene t to your company. Figure 18-4 displays a simple mixed model. (The size and diversity of your organization greatly affects your naming schema.) Generally, in the mixed model, the rst domain is assigned a DNS name; then, for every child of the existing domain, you use Make sure that you use only the Internet standard characters, de ned in the Request for Comments (RFC) 1123 as A-Z, a-z, 0-9, and the hyphen. Doing so ensures that your Active Directory complies with standard software. Using the preceding models as guides, you should have suf cient information to create your own plan for a naming schema.
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