These experiments indicated that an increase of solar conversion ef ciency on the order of 50% can be achieved for cells containing TiO2 mesoporous lms with a thickness 1 m.5 Method 2: The majority of lms of templated mesoporous TiO2 are still prepared by the deposition of preformed mesoporous TiO2 powder using suitable coating techniques, e.g., doctor-blading. Ngamsinlapasathian et al. report a study on the performance of a DSSC based on such TiO2, deposited on a nonporous TiO2 underlayer.87 By such a procedure, light conversion ef ciencies of up to 8% could be achieved. In addition, most of the fundamental understanding and advances in the application of porous TiO2 lms used in DSSCs was achieved with porous powders. Menzies and coworkers reported that the posttreatment of mesoporous TiO2 lms by in ltration with indium (III) and zirconium (IV) oxide precursor solutions led to an improved ef ciency.88 In conclusion, so far, templated mesoporous TiO2 lms show certain promise, but they have not reached the performance of the nanocrystalline TiO2 lms used in the classic Graetzel cell, in which the porosity (void between the nanoparticles) is disordered. This fact is somehow at variance with the assumption that an ordered mesoscopic structure should be superior to a nonorganized one because of, for example, the better homogeneity and good connection between the nanocrystals. Aside from the lm thickness, one of the problems encountered with templated mesoporous lms certainly is the accessibility of the dye and hole-conducting polymers (in the case of solid-state cells); since dyes and polymers possess a relatively low mobility, any constraints will impede an intimate covering of the pore walls throughout the sample. A loose packing of nanoparticles (a disordered mesopore structures) can be expected to be advantageous in this respect. Indeed, Le n et al. describe that photoinduced charge-transfer processes take place ef ciently between the dye and the substrate (nanocrystalline anatase).89 Still, there is a general lack of fundamental understanding of how the morphology on the nanometers scale in uences the solar-cell performance. Progress in the usage of templated mesoporous TiO2 for DSSCs has been limited, and thus, novel concepts are needed, for instance by using different oxides than those of titanium. Very recently, new solar-cell concepts were reported (Fig. 9.7), taking advantage of different oxides. Fattakhova-Rohl ng et al. described the deposition of semiconducting metal oxides within mesoporous indium-tin-oxide (ITO), which was itself obtained by EISA/sol-geltemplating. Finally, a metal oxide semiconductor was deposited within the mesoporous ITO, and a dye was incorporated by soaking; thus, it could be demonstrated that a photocurrent was measurable.59 As a main feature, the usage of a conducting matrix can be expected to help to decrease the resistance and to increase the mean life of the generated electrons. Also, a porous conducting electrode enables a more intimate contact between the electrode and the semiconductor. Despite the prelimi-
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A little more than a decade ago, TCP/IP was used by a relatively small number of computers connected to the Internet. As the number of networks connected to the Internet grew explosively, and as companies expanded to include more and more networks within the enterprise, TCP/IP has come to be the protocol of choice for most organizations. The reasons are many, but they commonly include the organization s need for standardization, the capability to route, and of course, Internet connectivity. Windows Server 2008 offers strong support for TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the primary protocol for, and the foundation of, Active Directory (AD), which is the keystone of Windows Server 2008 networks. On the client side, the TCP/IP protocol enables full support for connecting to both peer and server computers running TCP/IP, the Internet, and TCP/IP-based services such as networked printers.
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CDMA is a spread spectrum communications technique that supports simultaneous digital transmission of several users signals in a multiple access environment. Although the development of CDMA was motivated by user capacity considerations, the system capacity provided by CDMA is similar to that of its more traditional counterparts, frequency division multiple access (FDMA), and time division multiple access (TDMA) [35]. However, CDMA has the unique property of supporting a multiplicity of usersin the same radio channel with a graceful degradation in performance due to multi-user interference. Hence, any reduction in interference can lead to an increase in capacity [36]. Furthermore, the frequency reuse factor in a CDMA cellular environment can be as high as unity, andbeing a so-called wideband system, it can coexist with other narrowband microwave systems, which maycorrupt the CDMA signal s spectrum in a narrow frequency band without inflicting significant interference [37]. This eases the problem of frequency management as well as allowing a smooth evolution from narrowband systems to wideband systems. But perhaps the most glaring advantage of CDMA is its ability to combat or in fact to benefit from multipath fading, as it will become explicit during ourfurther discourse. In the forthcoming sections, we introduce our nomenclature, which will be usedthroughout the subsequent sections. Further in-depth information on CDMA can be found in a range of excellent research papers [35,37,38] and textbooks [3942].
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The folks actually working in the field are the ones who know where theory and application diverge to create a workable solution. They can tell you what strategies are sure to be successful and which ones are sure to flop. If you re working in SEO or search marketing of any form, you probably have questions you d love to pose to someone who s been working in the industry for a while. The interviews in this section give you that opportunity with me, Jerri Ledford, acting as your rep. Here you ll find 16 interviews with people across the SEO industry. These are the people in the trenches, who are faced each day with implementing SEO either for themselves or for other organizations. They understand your challenges from budget to manpower and they ve faced the same decisions about SEO that you have. In these interviews, they share their advice with you. They offer their best tips, and their opinions about what works, what doesn t, and what s coming.
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Wired Ethernet cards use a standard eight-pin, RJ-45 jack. This plug looks like a standard phone cord plug, only larger. Many modern PCs have wired Ethernet cards built into the motherboard, so there s no need to purchase a separate Ethernet card. If you re using your Ubuntu workstation directly with a cable or DSL modem, you ll need an Ethernet network cable to connect the two devices. Often the cable or DSL modem comes with a short Ethernet network cable for this purpose. The cable looks like an overgrown telephone cable, with eight-pin, RJ-45 plugs at both ends. One of the advantages of Ethernet is that it allows multiple devices to communicate over the same communications channel. To do that you need a network hub, switch, or router. The network hub connects multiple Ethernet devices into one network, allowing them to communicate with each other. A network switch is similar, but it helps partition the network traffic between switch ports by isolating each port on the network. Depending on your network traffic patterns, a switch may help control some congestion in the network. The network router helps you connect your home network to the cable or DSL network to access the Internet. The router often provides additional features, such as automatically assigning IP addresses to your network devices and a firewall service for blocking unwanted access to your network. With all of these methods you can often configure multiple workstations to share a single cable or DSL modem connection to the Internet.
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The PropertyManager in Figure 21.18 shows a bit of a discrepancy in terminology. Using Break as the name of the view seems a little awkward, and I much prefer it as Broken View, as it is shown here in the PropertyManager. It is inconsistent, but you get the idea anyway. To create a Break View, click the Break toolbar button on the Drawings toolbar, or choose it at Insert Drawing View Break. You need to place break lines in pairs, and you can choose from one of four break symbol styles, as shown in Figure 21.19. You can change the style from the RMB menu or from the PropertyManager.
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